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M. A.

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Gallery I


Gallery I

Gallery II
Including the mummy identified as Queen Hatshepsut.

Gallery III
Including the mummy identified as Queen Tiye.

 Gallery IV
Featuring the controversial KV 55 mummy. Now with a revised reconstruction of ancient events in this perplexing tomb.

Gallery V
Featuring the mummies of Tutankhamen and his children. Still in preparation.


Gallery I 
Now including the
mummy identified as
Ramesses I.


Gallery I


Gallery I

Gallery II

21'st Dynasty Coffins from DB320
  Examine the coffins
of 21'st Dynasty Theban Rulers.

  Unidentified  Mummies

Gallery I
Including the mummy identified as Tutankhamen's mother.

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Inhapi's Tomb

Using this website for research papers


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Special Exhibits

The Treasures of Yuya and Tuyu
  View the funerary equipment of Queen Tiye's parents.

 Tomb Raiders of KV 46
How thorough were the robbers who plundered the tomb of Yuya and Tuyu? How many times was the tomb robbed, and what were the thieves after? This study of post interment activity in KV 46 provides some answers.

Special KV 55 Section

Follow the trail of the missing treasures from mysterious KV 55.

KV 55's Lost Objects: Where Are They Today?

The KV 55 Coffin Basin and Gold Foil Sheets

KV 55 Gold Foil at the Metropolitan

Mystery of the Missing Mummy Bands

KV 35 Revisited
See rare photographic plates of a great discovery from Daressy's Fouilles de la Vallee des Rois.

Unknown Man E  
Was he really
buried alive?

The Tomb of Maihirpre
Learn about Victor Loret's important discovery of this nearly intact tomb in the Valley of the Kings.

Special Section:
Tomb Robbers!
Who were the real tomb raiders? What beliefs motivated their actions? A new perspective on the ancient practice of tomb robbing.

Special Section:
Spend a Night
with the Royal Mummies

Read Pierre Loti's eerie account of his nocturnal visit to the Egyptian Museum's Hall of Mummies.

Special Section:
An Audience With Amenophis II
Journey once more with Pierre Loti as he explores the shadowy  chambers of KV 35 in the early 1900's.

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Most of the images on this website have been scanned from books, all of which are given explicit credit and, wherever possible, a link to a dealer where they may be purchased. Some images derive from other websites. These websites are also acknowledged in writing and by being given a link, either to the page or file where the images appear, or to the main page of the source website. Images forwarded to me by individuals who do not supply the original image source are credited to the sender. All written material deriving from other sources is explicitly credited to its author. 
Feel free to use  material from the Theban Royal Mummy Project website. No prior written permission is required. Just please follow the same guidelines which I employ when using the works of other researchers, and give the Theban Royal Mummy Project  proper credit on your own papers, articles, or web pages. 

--Thank You

This website is constantly developing and contributions of data from other researchers are welcomed.
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Background Image:  Wall scene from the tomb of Ramesses II (KV 7.) From Karl Richard Lepsius, Denkmäler (Berlin: 1849-1859.)




XXI'st  Dynasty Gallery I
Learn more about the 21'st Dynasty.

Nodjmet (c. 1080?-1074? B.C. Dated to husband's reign.)
21'st Dynasty
Provenance: DB 320
(in side room "D")
Discovery Date:
Current Location:
Cairo Museum CG61087
See Nodjmet's Coffins


Biographical data
The mummy of Nodjmet was partly unwrapped by Gaston Maspero on June 1'st 1886. G. E. Smith continued the unwrapping on Sept. 13'th, 1906, but only removed the remaining wrappings from areas of the body that were of special relevance to his study of ancient Egyptian embalming practices. 
    Smith points out that, as one of the earliest mummies from the 21'st Dynasty, Nodjmet's is of special interest because it provides one of the first examples of the newer mummifying techniques initiated by the embalmers, probably inspired by their inspection of earlier mummies that had been restored and reburied in the caches. This mummy represents a transitional phase in the adoption of the new embalming methods. No attempt was made to insert materials under the skin via incisions, as in the case of later 21'st Dynasty mummies. Instead, the embalmers applied padding, wax, and other cosmetics directly to the surface of the skin in order to give the mummy a more life-like appearance. In order to fill out Nodjmet's face, her mouth was tightly packed with sawdust and her nose filled with resin. Artificial eyebrows, made of hair, were attached to her face with some type of adhesive substance, possibly resin. A wig was added, which gives the mummy a youthful look by concealing the few remaining gray hairs on the head. (To see another color photo of Nodjmet’s mummy, click here. Photo credit: Patrick Landmann, ACI/Science Photo Library.) 
NodjmetPapyrusNew.jpg    Nodjmet had been buried with two funerary papyri, one of which was stolen (presumably by the Abd el-Rassul’s) and sold. Maspero states in his 1905 Guide du Visiteur (to the Cairo Museum) that parts of the stolen papyrus (which Nodjmet had jointly owned with her husband Herihor) had ended up in the collections of the Louvre and the British Museum. (See photo of a vignette from the British Museum papyrus at right.) The Osiris shroud covering the mummy also concealed ancient damage. Nodjmet had gashes on her forehead, cheeks and nose, probably caused when thieves had cut through her original wrappings in search of valuables. Impressions of jewelry on her right arm indicate that they had found and stolen some objects. Nodjmet's legs were also badly broken, her wrists were fractured, and her left humerus was broken near the shoulder. 
    Some traces of jewelry still remain on Nodjmet's mummy. Smith discovered several bracelets, composed variously of tiny carnelian beads carved into the shapes of spheres and lotus buds, lapis lazuli beads, and gold cylinders, still in situ on Nojmet's wrists. Her artificial eyes are also in place (and, to some, give this mummy a "doll-like" appearance.) Smith states that this is the earliest known use of artificial eyes in a mummy. (However, see his comments on the artificial eyes, made of onions, used in the mummy of Ramesses IV. Smith also noted that linen had been packed under the eyelids of Tuyu and into the eye sockets of Ramesses III in an attempt to fashion artificial eyes. When he discussed Nodjmet's eyes, Smith probably meant that they were the first he had seen that had been made out of semi precious stone.) X-rays show that a heart scarab is still in situ in her chest along with figures of the four sons of Horus. NodjmetBridgemanACINew.jpgThe traditional embalming plate was not used in this case, and the embalmers had simply filled the embalming incision with a wax plug. The body cavity had been packed with sawdust. Smith reported that he could find no trace of viscera in the body cavity, so, in Nodjmet's case, the viscera had probably been placed in canopics rather than reinserted into the body cavity as is the case with subsequent 21'st Dynasty mummies. She was found along with an Osiris figure and a wooden canopic box (Photo credit: from the National Gallery of Art's Quest for Immortality website.) Nodjmet lay in two nested coffins (CG61024) that had originally been made for an unidentified man. The outer coffin had its gilding completely adzed off and eye inlays removed. The inner coffin had received slightly different treatment. Most of its gilded surfaces were also adzed off, the gold covered hands removed, and the eye inlays taken out. But the inscriptions and religious symbols remained intact, indicating that the coffin had been stripped by necropolis officials and priests rather than by thieves. (See a photo of Nodjmet's coffin from Ian Bolton's Egypt: Land of Eternity site.) (Source Bibliography: CCR, 40ff; CP, 175; DRN, 201, 207, 213; GdV, 336 f.; JARCE 16 (1979) 66f.; MiAE, 127, 230, 329, ills. 133, 143, 429; MMM, 37, ill. 36; MR, 569f., 592f., 677;  RM, 94ff; XRA, 3D3-3ES; XRP, 171, 172, ills. 48, 49.)

Other Burial Data: 
Original Burial
: Occurred around Year 1 of Smendes (see Linen Docket translation below) probably in tomb of Inhapi (WN A?).
Reburial: in DB 320 after Year 11 of Shoshenq I (Sources: DRN, 255.)

(i.) Linen Docket: Dated in context with the inscriptional evidence provided by Linen Docket (iii.) below to Yr 1 of Smendes/PinudjemI. Found on bandages on the sole of Nodjmet's left foot: "High Priestess of Amon." (Source: RM, 97.)

(ii.) Linen Docket: Dated in context with the inscriptional evidence provided by Linen Docket (iii.) below to Yr 1 of Smendes/PinudjemI. Found on a bandage on the right side of the body: "Nodjmet (written in a cartouche.)" 

(iii.) Linen Docket: Yr 1 of Smendes/Pinudjem I: "(Reference to 'the first year of Pinotmou')" (Source Bibliography: DRN, 234, #11; GPI doc. 1; RM, 97; RNT, 249; TIP, 417 [6].)

Photo Credit: Bridgeman/ACI for photos of Nodjmet's mummy. Vignette from Nodjmet's papyrus from The British Museum.
For high resolution photos of Nodjmet see the University of Chicago's Electronic Open Stacks copy of Smith's The Royal Mummies (Cairo, 1912,) Call #: DT57.C2 vol59, plates LXIX, LXX, LXXI

Source Abbreviation Key


Pinudjem I (c. 1070-1032 B.C.)
21'st Dynasty
Provenance: DB 320
Discovery Date:
Current Location:
Unknown. (Qasr el Einy Medical Facility, Cairo?)
See the Coffins of Pinudjem I.

Click here for biographical data

Click here for more biographical data on Pinudjem I
from Ian Bolton's Egypt: Land of Eternity site.


Details: The mummy of Pinudjem I had been disturbed, probably first in antiquity and then by the Abd er-Rassuls between their discovery of DB 320 and its official clearance by Emil Brugsch 10 years later. The mummy was wrapped in an Osiris shroud, and may have been basically intact but, since its location remains unknown, the condition of the mummy can not be determined. (The odd fact the mummy of Pinudjem I has been missing since the late 19'th century constitutes a genuine Egyptological mystery. Rumors that it might be at the Qasr el Einy Medical Facility in Cairo occasionally circulate, but nothing definite has ever emerged to confirm this.) The photo (above left) taken by Brugsch sometime after the DB 320 mummies were taken to Boulak, seems to show a mummy in good condition. Another photo taken by Brugsch (at right) shows the mummy as it appeared during an early stage of its unwrapping.
       The mummy of Pinudjem I had originally been covered with a shroud held in place with red leather straps, or "braces" (cf. the still-wrapped mummy of Isiemkheb-D.) These had been removed by the Abd er-Rassuls, who attempted to sell them to Charles E. Wilbour, a colleague of Gaston Maspero's. This event provided important evidence that eventually helped the authorities track down the location of DB 320. Pinudjem I
was interred with an exceptionally fine papyrus copy of The Book of the Dead, some 450 cm. in length and 37 cm. in width, which was found rolled up between the legs of his mummy (see photo of papyrus from EMC-87, no. 235.) Two shabti boxes associated with Pinedjem I were also found in the tomb (see photo of shabti box and shabtis from The British Museum.) 
    Pinudjem I was found in the very large, yellow painted coffin (CG61006) originally belonging to Ahotpe I, mother of Amosis I, the founder of the 18'th Dynasty. (See a photo of this coffin from Ian Bolton's Egypt: Land of Eternity site.) But Pinudjem I had originally been buried in a double coffin set (CG61025) that he had appropriated from Tuthmosis I. These two coffins had been coated with plaster, gilded, painted and reinscribed for Pinudjem I. When found, the gilding had been adzed off, but Pinudjem's inscriptions were left intact. Close inspection of the coffins revealed their original owner. As in the case of Nodjmet's coffins, Pinudjem I's had also probably been stripped by priestly reburial officials instead of thieves. (See Nodjmet above.)  (Source Bibliography: CCR, 50ff; DRN, 202, 208, 212, 213; MR, 544ff, 570, 581;  MiAE, 92, 125, 230, 232, 319, 329, ills. 73, 74, 128, 129, 207, 301; TVK, 130; XRP, 172, 173.

Other Burial Data: 
Original Burial
: Perhaps in the tomb of Inhapi (WN A).
Reburial: after Year 11 of Shoshenq I (in side room "D" of DB 320.) (Source: DRN, 255.)

Photo Credit: unwrapped mummy: MiAE , 125; wrapped mummy: Museum of New Zealand.

Source Abbreviation Key

Duathathor-Henttawy-A (c. 1070?-1032? B.C. Dated to husband's reign.)
21'st Dynasty
Provenance: DB 320
Discovery Date:
Current Location:
Cairo Museum CG61090
See Duathathor-Henttawy’s Coffins

Biographical data HenuttawyLandmannCrop.jpg

Details: The mummy of Henntawy had been disturbed, and an opening had been dug through the bandages in the region of the thorax and abdomen. The mummy had an Osiris shroud which appears intact in a photo taken by Emile Brugsch after the mummy had been taken to Cairo (see photo of wrapped mummy from MR1 [Cairo, 1881] and reprinted in KMT [3:4] 46) proving that the hole burrowed into Duathathor-Henntawy's body was already present when the 21'st Dynasty priests re-wrapped her. 
    This mummy is historically interesting in that it is one of the first to exhibit the completely evolved version of the new embalming techniques pioneered in the 21'st Dynasty. The original embalmers had packed sawdust mixed with resins and bits of linen under the skin of Henttawy's body and face in order to give her a more life-like appearance. This represents a departure from the method used on Nodjmet's mummy (cf. above) in which the padding had been applied directly to the surface of the skin without any attempt at sub-dermal packing. Over the centuries, the sawdust used to "flesh out" Henntawy expanded and unfortunately ruptured the skin. In 1974, her face was restored to a semblance of her ancient appearance by Dr. Nasri Iskander (see Henttawy prior to Iskander's restoration by clicking here. Photo from RM , pl. LXXIII. ) X-rays revealed the presence of several amulets still in the wrappings. HenntawyEbalmingPlate.jpgSmith also records that he found a very fine example of a gold embalming plate covering the embalming incision. This plate was unusual in that, in addition to the customary Eye of Horus, it was also engraved with images of the Four Sons of Horus and bore inscriptions. Tiny holes visible in the upper and lower corners of this object show where string had been threaded. This was circled around the abdomen like a belt in order to attach the plate to Henntawy's body.(See photo of embalming plate at right.)  
    The mummy was found in a dual set of coffins (CG61026) one of which (the outer one) lacked a lid. The gilded portions of both coffins had been adzed over, but the sacred images on both were intact, and the inner coffin also retained its inscriptions. As in the case of the coffins belonging to Nodjmet and Pinudjem II,  Duathathor-Henttawy's were probably stripped by necropolis officials rather than thieves. She was found along with two shabti boxes, an Osiris figure, a papyrus, and canopic jars. A shabti belonging to her is currently in the Berlin Museum (see photo from CP, 175) Shabtis of this queen are unusually well represented online. One may be seen at the University of Pennsylvania Museum. Another shabti of Duathathor-Henttawy is in the collection of the Petrie Museum. A third shabti of this queen may be viewed at (Source Bibliography: CCR, 63ff; CP, 175; DRN, 201, 207, 212, 255-256; EMs, 47, 48, ill. 46; MiAE, 126, 239, 329, ill. 131; MMM, 37, 65, ill. 22;  MR, 576f., 590, 592; RM, 101ff.; XRP, 100, 172-73, ills. 20, 50.)

Other Burial Data: 
Original Burial
: In tomb of Inhapi (WN A?) Reeves points out that the coffins and mummy of Duathathor-Henttawy bear a close resemblance to those of Pinudjem I and Nodjmet (see above), all of which were disturbed (by being processed by necropolis officials.) He believes this indicates that all three mummies were originally buried together in the same tomb--probably WN A.)
Reburial: In DB 320 (in corridor "B") after year 11 of Shoshenq I. (Source: DRN, 251-252.)

Photo Credit: Patrick Landmann, ACI/Science Photo Library
For high resolution photos of Duathathor-Henttawy see the University of Chicago's Electronic Open Stacks copy of Smith's The Royal Mummies (Cairo, 1912,) Call #: DT57.C2 vol59, plate LXXVI (which shows both mummy and gold embalming plate.) To see another color photo of Henuttawy’s reconstructed face, click here (Photo credit: Patrick Landmann, ACI/Science Photo Library.)

Source Abbreviation Key


Maatkare-Mutemhet (c. 1070?-1032? B.C. Dated to parent's reign.)
21'st Dynasty
Provenance: DB 320
Discovery Date:
Current Location:
Cairo Museum CG61088
View Matkare's Coffins

Biographical data: Daughter of Pinudjem I and Duathathor-Henttawy-A (see above). Maatkare-Mutemhet bore the title "God's Wife of Amen," and as such was the second most powerful person in Egypt after the Pharaoh. See additional biographical data.   

MaatkareNewA.jpg Details: 
Reeves (perhaps using MR [Cairo, 1889] as the basis of his report) states that the mummy of Maatkare-Mutemhet had been disturbed, and mentions that only the wrappings of her right arm were slit open by thieves searching for valuables. Smith, who examined the mummy in June, 1909, describes the ancient damage as being more extensive in nature, saying that Maatkare's shroud had been ripped from forehead to pelvis (cf. RM, pp. 98 ff.) Her left forearm was broken, and her hands had been badly damaged, one being practically broken off. Smith records that Maatkare's face had been painted with yellow ochre (probably in imitation of the skin color used by artists when depicting aristocratic women on wall paintings--cf. Masaharta, below) and a gum-like material which adhered to the linen shroud. He described the linens used to wrap Maatkare as being of superior quality to any he had encountered in mummies from the preceding dynasties. He also states that the body cavity was filled with sawdust, and that the neck had been packed with fat (possibly butter) mixed with soda in order to give the mummy a more life-like appearance. 
    Maatkare was found in her original coffins (CG 61028; JE26200). The beautiful outer coffin had a gilded left hand (the right hand was missing) and had originally been designed to include some type of forehead decoration which was no longer present. The holes clearly visible above the forehead on the portrait mask of the outer coffin indicate that some type of decorative element had originally been placed there. (For more details about this missing decoration, see Rogerio Sousa, GCSS, 53f., n. 321. Also see the link above to our page about Maatkare's coffins.) The coffin and coffin board had both the gilded hands and faces missing. (See photo of Maatkare still enshrouded in damaged inner coffin from MR1 [Cairo, 1881] and reprinted in KMT [3:4] 41.) A leather thong was found around Maatkare's head which was probably used to hold an amulet, now missing. Three gold and silver rings were found on each thumb (see link to RM, pl. LXXIII below), and x-rays revealed the presence of a gold plate covering the embalming incision (which, notes Reeves, had been missed by G. E. Smith.) A funerary papyrus of Maatkare exists but is not mentioned by Reeves in his list of objects found with the High Priestess in DB 320, perhaps indicating that this had been stolen by the Abd el-Rassul's and subsequently sold on the antiquities market. (See photo of papyrus from PF, pl. I.) See another photo of papyrus from TVK, 127.

    MaatkareNewB.jpg A small, neatly wrapped mummy was found in the coffins with the High Priestess (see photo at left.) Since Smith had observed that Maatkare's breasts were enlarged as though she had been lactating, he concluded that she had died in childbirth, and assumed that the small mummy was that of her child and (as had Maspero earlier) mistakenly believed that the name "Mutemhet," which appeared on Maatkare's coffin, designated this child. Later, it was discovered that the name "Mutemhet" was a name of Maatkare herself. Harris and Weeks also affirm that Maatkare died in childbirth, and add that the embalmers had packed her abdomen in a way calculated to emphasize that fact. However, their x-rays revealed that the tiny mummy is not a human child, but a female hamadryas baboon (XRP, 53), perhaps included with Maatkare for ritual purposes. Not all Egyptologists agree that Maatkare died in childbirth. Salima Ikram and Aidan Dodson point out that her mummy's "pregnant" appearance could have resulted unintentionally from the slow "swelling" of the embalming materials. The 1987 edition of the Official Catalogue: The Egyptian Museum, Cairo also disputes the theory that Maatkare died while giving birth. (Source Bibliography:  CCR, 82ff.; DRN, 201, 207, 213; EM, 114; EMC-87, no. 237; EMs, 48, ills. 47; EMbm, 66, ill. no. 85; GCSS, 53f., n. 321; MiAE, 126-7, 242, 329, ills. no. 27, 74, 299, 300; MR, 579-pl. 19b, 590ff.; RM, 98ff., 106;  TVK, 127; XRA, 3E5-351; XRP, 173, 174, ills. 52-53.)

Other Burial Data: 
Original Burial: Unknown.
Reburial: in DB 320 (probably in end chamber "F") at sometime before Year 11 of Shoshenq I (after which the Inhapi group of mummies were cached in this tomb. (Source: DRN, 256.)

Photo Credit: top photo from Patrick Landmann/Science Photo Library; b&w photo from RM (Cairo, 1912) pl. LXXII; composite photo of baboon mummy with X-ray from RM (Cairo, 1912) plate LXXIV & XRP, 53.
For high resolution photos of Maatkare see the University of Chicago's Electronic Open Stacks copy of Smith's The Royal Mummies (Cairo, 1912,) Call #: DT57.C2 vol59, plates LXXII, LXXIII (showing close up of hand with rings,) LXXIV.

Source Abbreviation Key

Masaharta (c. 1054-1046 B.C.)
21'st Dynasty
Provenance: DB 320
Discovery Date: 1881
Current Location: Luxor Museum of Mummification MasahartaNewA
View Masaharta's Coffins

Click here for biographical data

Click here for more biographical data on Masaharta from Ian Bolton's Egypt: Land of Eternity site.

Details: Masaharta's mummy was unwrapped by Gaston Maspero on June 30'th, 1886. It is an unusual looking mummy due to its rotund appearance, which may have been exaggerated due to the expansion of embalming materials (chiefly sawdust, resin, and strips of linen) under the skin (cf. Duathathor-Henttawy-A above.) G. Elliot Smith describes it as having a "grotesque, ourang-outan-like (sic.) appearance." He notes that the face was painted with red ochre of the same color as that employed for representations of men in wall paintings. Smith also records that the hands of the mummy, although placed in a manner intended to cover the pubic region, failed to reach far enough to accomplish this due to Masaharta's corpulence. The High Priest's stoutness also necessitated a change in the position of the embalming incision, which in his case was parallel to Poupart's ligament instead of higher up on the abdomen.               
     MasahartaCoffinNewA Masaharta's mummy had been disturbed by the Abd el-Rassul's, who stole a papyrus from it. Otherwise, the mummy appears to be intact. Impressions of a pectoral ornament remain in the hardened resins on the mummy's chest, and Reeves also mentions some kind of "braces," which were perhaps used to strengthen or support the mummy in an upright position. (See DRN, 267, n. 313, where the "braces" or "brace" (JE46953) is described as the lower part of a stucco-covered pole inserted at the time the mummy was originally wrapped. Typically, the term "braces" usually refers to the strips of linen used to hold the shroud in place, but here the term is used differently.) One gold finger stall remains in place on the middle finger of Masaharta's right hand. 
    The High Priest was found in his original coffins (CG61027) The gilded right hand was missing from the outer coffin (see photo of coffin at right by Heidi Kontkanen/Flickr), and both gilded hands and faces were missing from the inner coffin and coffin board. Found with Masaharta were the remains of what might have been a leather shrine. (Source Bibliography: DRN, 201, 207, 213, 267-n. 313; EM, 118; MiAE, 132, 162, 242, 329, ill. 186; MR, 571; RM, 106.)

Other Burial Data:
Original Burial: Unknown.
Reburial: In DB 320 (in end chamber "F"). Reeves conjectures that Masaharta's mummy was placed in DB 320 before year 11 of Shoshenq I., the time at which  which the Inhapi group of mummies was transferred to this tomb. Since his mummy was plundered, unlike the mummies of the Pinudjem II group, Reeves thinks it unlikely that DB 320 was the original burial place of Masaharta. (Source: DRN, 256.)

Photo Credit: Photo of Masaharta's mummy from RM (Cairo, 1912) pl. LXXIX.; photo of Masaharta's outer coffin by Heidi Kontkanen/Flickr. For high resolution photo of Masaharta see the University of Chicago's Electronic Open Stacks copy of Smith's The Royal Mummies (Cairo, 1912,) Call #: DT57.C2 vol59, plate LXXIX. View recent close up photos of Masaharta's mummy.

Source Abbreviation Key

Tayuheret (c. 1054-1046 B. C.)
Provenance: DB 320
Discovery Date
: 1881
Current Location: Cairo Museum CG61091

View Tayuheret's Coffins Tayuheret.jpg

Biographical data: Tayuheret was probably the wife of high priest Masaharta (see above.)  

Details: The mummy of Tayuheret was unwrapped by Gaston Maspero on June 29'th, 1886. The resin coated linen carapace which covered her was allowed to remain in place. On July 6, 1909, G. E. Smith examined the mummy, and discovered that the resin used to fashion this carapace had been mixed with sawdust, an ingredient Smith had not previously seen employed in this fashion. He removed enough of this hardened linen to expose the face, but had to leave most of it in place to avoid damaging the mummy. 
    Smith noted that Tayuheret's cheeks had been packed in order to flesh them out. He does not specify the packing material used in this case, but he describes it as being similar to that employed in the mummies of Maatkare and Duathathor-Henttawy-A (see above.) Tayuheret's nostrils had been covered with discs of wax, and a type of nose-guard had been fashioned of wax for the purpose of preventing the nose from becoming flattened and distorted by the bandages. She had been given a set of artificial stone eyes, and her right eye had also been covered by a wax plate. Wax was additionally employed to fill the space between the lips, which Smith described as being widely parted.
     TayuheretChristies.jpgTayuheret's ears were covered with hair which Smith thought was mostly from a wig. Tayuheret's own hair was mostly white, indicating that she had died an elderly woman. Smith also noted that insects had damaged the skin of the face, especially that of the forehead. This may indicate that an unusually long period of time had elapsed between Tayuheret's death and her embalming. However, her bandages also appear to be pitted with small holes (see photo above) which could have been caused by insects sometime after her embalming. Smith comments that the plate used to cover the embalming incision differs from the engraved plates usually employed during the 21'st Dynasty. It was plain and fusiform, similar to the plates used by embalmers of the 18'th Dynasty. 
    Tayuheret was found in a double coffin set which had been usurped from a chantress of Amen named Hatet (CG 61032). The gilded hands and faces of both coffins were missing, and the inner coffin had been further damaged. The head and feet of her coffin-board were missing. Reeves notes only that some broken shabti boxes remained of Tayuheret's other funerary equipment. However, numerous shabtis inscribed for Tayuheret exist in private collections and museums. Presumably from DB320, many of these shabtis were probably stolen by the Abd el-Rassul's and sold on the antiquities market. The photo at right shows a shabti of Tayuheret auctioned at Christie's in 2012. (Photo from Christie's. For more views of Tayuheret's shabtis, see Niek de Haan's The Overseer Shabtis of Tayu-heret.) (Source Bibliography: CCR, 171ff.; DRN,  203, 208, 214, 256; MR, 578, 590; RM, 105.)

Other Burial Data: 
Original Burial
: Unknown.
Reburials: Since Tayuheret's coffins and coffin board had been effaced in a manner similar to those of Masaharta (see above), and Maatkare-Mutemhet (see above) Reeves thinks that she was probably buried with them at some point prior to her reburial in DB 320. Edward Loring interprets the coffin damage differently and argues that Tayuheret had not been interred with her supposed husband Masaharta or Maakare-Mutemhet but had been originally interred elsewhere, All three mummies were found in end chamber "F" of DB 320 prior to the caching of the Inhapi group of mummies. Reeves dates this latter event to sometime after Year 11 of Shoshenq I. (Source Bibliography: DRN, 256; TIP, 457, table 9; TRC, 67f.)
Photo Credit: Photo of Tayuheret's mummy from RM (Cairo, 1912) pl. LXXVII. Photo of Tayuheret's shabti from Christie's. For high resolution photo of Tayuheret's mummy  see the University of Chicago's Electronic Open Stacks copy of Smith's The Royal Mummies (Cairo, 1912,) Call #: DT57.C2 vol59, plates LXXVII and LXXVIII.

Source Abbreviation Key


Pinudjem II (c. 990-969 B.C.)
21'st Dynasty
Provenance: DB 320
Discovery Date: 1881
Current Location: Cairo Museum CG61094
View the coffins of Pinudjem II

Biographical data

Details: The mummy of Pinudjem II was in a virtually intact condition when found. (See recent color photos here [from Al Ahram], and here [from yusheng on Flickr.]) It was unwrapped by Gaston Maspero on June 28, 1886. Reeves notes that he had been wrapped in an Osiris shroud, and that some of his wrappings had been replaced or patched up in some fashion by a mat made of halfa grass. There were several different inscriptions on Pinudjem II's bandages (see Linen Docket translations below) and a number of amulets and articles of jewelry, including two bracelets, were also found in the wrappings and on his body. (See photo of bracelets from EMC-87, 239.) Ikram and Dodson note that Pinudjem's body was colored with ochre (perhaps red in color, cf. Masaharta above) and state that his body cavity had been packed with linen packets, some of which held sawdust while others contained the mummified viscera of the king. They also note that his arms had been packed with mud. 
    Pinudjem II was found in a double coffin set. Both inner and outer coffins (CG 61029A-B see color photo of the inner coffin's face below left) were intact, as was the coffin board (CG 61029C see photo below right) which accompanied them. His remaining funerary equipment consisted of a shabti box (Reeves indicates that there may have been more than one), an Osiris figure, a papyrus (photo from Ancient Origins), and canopic jars (again, Reeves indicates a degree of uncertainty about this last item.) A shabti belonging to Pinudjem II is currently in a private collection (see photo of shabti from CP, 177. An extreme close up photo composite of another shabti of Pinudjem II is available at A third shabti of this priest/king is in the collection of the Petrie Museum.  Whether these shabtis were still in DB 320 when Brugsch first entered it, or had been stolen by the Abd el-Rassuls and sold on the antiquities market, is presently unknown. (Source Bibliography: CCR, 95ff.; CP, 177; DRN, 202, 208, 214, 256; MiAE, 44, 77, 79, 228, 230, 232, 242, 265, 330, ills. 134, 208, 303, 304; MR, 571f., 592ff.; RM, 107.)


Other Burial Data: 
Original Burial: DB 320 in Year 10 4 prt 20 of Siamun. (Source: DRN, 256. On this page, Reeves mentions the wall docket found at the bottom of the entrance shaft leading into DB 320, which dates the burial of Pinudjem II, and directs reader's to footnote no. 318 on p. 267 of DRN. Footnote no. 318 further refers readers to Docket # 44, Table 10, p. 238. This is in error. The Docket Reeves means to indicate is # 45, Table 10, p. 238. [See Wall Docket translation below.]) Year 10 4 prt 20 was a busy day for necropolis officials, for dockets on the coffins of Seti I and Ramesses II (and also on a coffin fragment of Ramesses I) indicate that they had also reburied these two kings on that date in a tomb identified by Reeves as the "high place (k3y) of Inhapi" referred to in the dockets. He also argues that this tomb is WN A, and not DB 320 itself as Winlock and others have maintained.)

Wall Docket: (From bottom of entrance shaft to DB 320) "Year 10 4 prt 20. Day of burial (krs) of the Osiris, high priest of Amon-Re king of the gods, great chief of the army, the leader Pinudjem, by the god's father of Amun, overseer of the treasury Djedkhonsiufankh; the god's father of Amun, scribe of the army, chief inspector Nespakashuty; the prophet of Amun ...enamun; the god's father of Amun Wennufer; by the king's scribe of the Place of Truth Bakenmut; the chief workman Pediamun; the chief workman Amenmose; the god's father of Amun, chief of secrets, Pediamun son of Ankhefenkhons" (Source Bibliography: C, [May, 1887], [article about DB 320 discovery by Edward Wilson] [see photo of wall docket]; DRN, 239, no. 45: JEA 32, 25ff.; MR, 522f. [facs., transcr.]; RNT, 253 [30a-b]; TIP, 423 [79].)


Linen Dockets:
(i.) Year 1 of Siamun (or Amenomope? Osochor?)/Pinudjem II:"...(Am)un  in Yr 1" (Source Bibliography: DRN, 236, #32: MR, 572 [transcr.]; RNT, 251 [20]; TIP, 422 [57].)

(ii.) Year 3 of Siamun (or Amenomope? Osochor?)/Pinudjem II: "...Amun   (in) Yr 3" (Source Bibliography: DRN, 236, #34; MR, 572 [transcr.]; RNT, 251 [21]; TIP, 422 [62].)

(iii.) Year 7 of Siamun (or Amenomope? Osochor?)/Pinudjem II: "Linen which the high priest of Amun Pinudjem son of Menkheperre made for Amun (in) Yr 7" (Source Bibliography: DRN, 237, #38; MR, 572 [transcr.]; RNT, 252 [26]; TIP, 422 [71].)

(iv.) Year 9 of Siamun (or Amenomope? Osochor?)/Pinudjem II: "Linen which the high priest of Amun Pinudjem (son of) Menkheperre made for Khons in Yr 9" (Source Bibliography: DRN, 237, #39; MR, 572 [transcr.]; RNT, 252 [27]; TIP, 422 [76].)

Photo Credit: Photo of mummy from RM (Cairo, 1912) pl. LXXXI; photo of coffin board from CCR, pl. XLIV; color photo of inner coffin face from CESRAS.
For high resolution photo of Pinudjem II see the University of Chicago's Electronic Open Stacks copy of Smith's The Royal Mummies (Cairo, 1912,) Call #: DT57.C2 vol59, plate LXXXI.

Source Abbreviation Key